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英语作文语言技能-全文结构
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2008-01-30 09:40:45  第1英语作文网  www.zuowen1.com  
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    英语作文语言技能全文结构

    作文的基本格式一般为:(1)引言段(Introduction),(2)正文段(Body)和(3)结尾段(Conclusion)。此节将以四级考试写作题型为框架,扼要地介绍各种题型的引言段、正文段和结尾段的结构和基本特点。
    一、引言段
    引言段用于确定文章的讨论范围并揭示文章主题,交代文章的写作目的。这一段往往用来表明作者的观点或看法,但要注意不应对主题深入讨论或阐述,否则后面的正文论述就会显得罗嗦。各类作文引言段示例:
    1. 主题句作文
    The Role of Computers
    The computer is a great invention of this century. Ever since the first computer was brought into being, this invention has greatly changed our ways of working and living. Without computers, a lot of things would become impossible. The world would not be what it is today.
    2. 提纲作文
    On Choosing Career
    (1) 有些人认为家长有责任为孩子计划将来的职业;
    (2) 孩子们认为应该由自己决定将来从事的工作;
    (3) 谈谈你的看法。
    Generally parents consider it their responsibility planning careers for their children. They claim that they know their children well enough to decide what kind of jobs suits them. Hoping that their children will go in for professions that will bring them prestige and money, many parents think that their children are too young and inexperienced to see this themselves. For these reasons, many parents insist that their children should obey them in choosing careers.
    3. 图表作文



    Commercial
    14% Industry
    Residential 41%
    19%

    Transportation
    26%

    U.S ENERGY USE

    Energy Use in the U.S.A.
    The pie chart shows the energy use in the United States. From the pie chart, we can have an overall understanding of the situation of energy use in the United States.
    4. 看图作文










    Three Monks
    Having had a hot quarrel about who should go to fetch water, the three monks dropped the barrel and the pole, and sat down on the floor of the old temple, with their backs to each other and no intention to move.
    5. 关键词作文
    City and Countryside
    Key Words: similarities, differences, environment, education, transportation, entertainment, colorful, boring, narrow the gap, public health services
    Although there are some similarities between the city and the countryside, there still exist great differences between them in the following fields.
    6. 标题作文
    Importance of English Writing Ability
    In social communication, English writing ability has become more and more important. Scientists have to write their discoveries in English for publication. Sometimes students are required to write a course paper or a composition in English to show what they have learned. Other people need to write an English letter for business or personal matters to someone in a foreign country. So English writing ability is necessary for us now.
    7. 书信短文
    A Letter of Invitation
    Dear Mr. Higgins,
    We have pleasure in inviting you to our annual conference. This year it will be taking place at the Metropolis Hotel, Brighton from 24 to 28 July.


    二、正文段
    正文段是文章的主体,用于对文章的主题进行论证和阐述。正文段可以是一段或几段,在四级考试中,正文段则一般以一至两段为宜,但无论几段,正文段都必须围绕主题展开。各类作文正文段示例:
    1. 主题句作文
    The Role of Computers
    Computers serve us everywhere. High up in space and down deep in ocean, they are used to make courageous explorations. On farms and in factories, they help us do tiring and difficult work. They take over our routine work in office and at home. There is a clear tendency indicating that they will play a more and more important role in our work and everyday life.
    2. 提纲作文
    On Choosing Career
    (1) 有些人认为家长有责任为孩子计划将来的职业;
    (2) 孩子们认为应该由自己决定将来从事的工作;
    (3) 谈谈你的看法。
    But many children suggest that they should have their freedom to choose their careers. For one thing, parents and their children may not share the same interests. A job that appeals to parents is not necessarily appealing to their children. For another, children as they are in their parents’ eyes, they are grown ups when it comes to finding a job, and therefore, they should be allowed to develop independence and self-reliance. In short, children should be left free to make their own decisions about their future careers.
    3. 图表作文
    The Energy Use in the U.S.A.
    From the pie chart, we can see clearly that the American energy consumption is divided into four major parts, namely, residential, industry, commercial and transportation. Industry consumes the largest portion, accounting for 41%. Transportation ranks the second, making up 26%, while the commercial use and residential use are 14% and 19% respectively.
    4. 看图作文
    Three Monks
    In fact, with a barrel, every individual can fetch water. Two monks can fetch water with even easier shared efforts. But with three monks, it’s hard to fetch water because only two of them are enough and a third one is spared, while each one wants to be the third one, which makes things difficult. As a result, with their energy saved, they would go thirsty.
    5. 关键词作文
    City and Countryside
    Key Words: similarities, differences, environment, education, transportation, entertainment, colorful, boring, narrow the gap, public health services
    Generally speaking, the environment is better in the countryside. It’s quieter and cleaner, and the air is fresher than that in the city. On the other hand, people in the city can get better education, more entertainment, and free public health services. In addition, transportation in the city is more convenient than in the countryside.
    6. 标题作文
    Importance of English Writing Ability
    I think there are several ways by which we can improve our writing in English. One is that we should read more. We can read English newspapers, magazines, and textbooks, and copy the useful sentences and phrases. Second, we should write more, writing to our friends in English and writing articles in English to publish. We can also keep a diary in English.

    7. 书信短文
    A Letter of Invitation
    Last year you gave a very interesting presentation on the subject of “ Purchasing High Technology”. We would be very grateful if you would consider giving us an update on this.

    三、 结尾段
    结尾段通常比较简洁,简述经过论证后的结论, 使读者对文章主旨有一个完整的认识, 加深读者的印象, 做到首尾呼应。 注意不要在结论段里提出新的问题或话题,但可以提出期望,也可以展望未来。各类作文结尾段示例:
    1. 主题句作文
    The Role of Computers
    Computers also cause trouble. For example, the whole system will break down when only an individual computer goes wrong. It is possible somebody breaks into a computer system to steal secret information. What’s more, computers have created lots of young fans that get so addicted to video games that their study as well as health is unfavorably affected.
    2. 提纲作文
    On Choosing Career
    (1) 有些人认为家长有责任为孩子计划将来的职业;
    (2) 孩子们认为应该由自己决定将来从事的工作;
    (3) 谈谈你的看法。
    In my opinion, mutual understanding is important in this case. On one hand, parents’ views do reflect their concern for the well-being of their children. On the other hand, it is the children who will be doing the jobs, not the parents. Therefore, it is wise of parents to give their children freedom to make their own choices and it is also wise of children to consult their parents when making decisions.
    3. 图表作文
    The Energy Use in the U.S.A.
    By studying the chart, we have got a basic understanding of the situation of energy use in the United States, so that we are now acquainted with the sector in American life that consumes the greatest amount of energy.
    4. 看图作文
    Three Monks
    The story is simple, but we can learn a lot from it. Selfishness is such an evil good-for-nothing that it can turn everybody’s responsibility into nobody’s responsibility. To achieve accomplishments, we need teamwork and selfless contribution.
    5. 关键词作文
    City and Countryside
    Key Words: similarities, differences, environment, education, transportation, entertainment, colorful, boring, narrow the gap, public health services
    To sum up, life in the city is more colorful, while life in the countryside is more boring. Now, people are working hard to reduce the gap.
    6. 标题作文
    Importance of English Writing Ability
    In a word, more and more importance is being attached to English writing ability; therefore, we must spend more time improving our writing skills. So long as we practice writing and write something for real purposes, we will be able to perfect our writing ability in English.
    7. 书信作文
    A Letter of Invitation
    We would appreciate it if you could confirm your participation at your earliest convenience.

    Yours sincerely
    P Matthews
    Conference Organizer

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